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4 Ways Jealousy Actually Helps Your Relationship

The surprising way that jealousy can help your relationship.

What you hear about jealousy can be confusing. It's unpleasant, emotionally painful to experience and can cause you to act paranoid and so unlike the person you want to be (and truly are). But...

Sometimes, jealousy can seem to get you what you've been longing for — your partner's attention. This is why certain websites and magazine articles actually advocate using jealousy to make your partner spend more energy and time with you, instead of continuing to neglect you. Whether it's you flirting with someone else right in front of him or you accusing her of thinking about and wanting to be with another, it sort of seems to work. At least in the short term, your partner changes his or her behavior in order to keep the peace and prevent you from getting jealous again.

Of course, this is only in the short-term, if it works the way you want it to at all. As tempting as it is, caving in to jealousy leaves you more suspicious and insecure than ever before. Your partner feels defensive, manipulated and is possibly questioning the benefits of staying with you. In other words, jealousy leaves you and your partner further apart than you were and is a real threat to your relationship.

So, can jealousy ever be a good thing?

Our answer is a qualified "Yes." When you recognize that you're acting or reacting from a jealous place and you stop to really understand where it's coming from, you can transform your relationship and your life in wonderful ways. Whenever the urge to interrogate, accuse or check your partner's phone arises, that's your cue to come of the jealousy haze and and take a closer look.

This is your opportunity to pause, get clear and consciously choose what's truly in your best interests. Jealousy is NEVER beneficial if you do what you’ve always done and allow it to take over and dictate your words and actions. Misery and possibly a breakup or divorce are ahead if you simply allow jealousy to take over.

Jealousy can be a good thing when you...

1. Look at your thoughts. If you want jealousy to end up being a positive in your life (instead of the drain and downer), then you've got to start paying attention to the thoughts that float through your mind. It doesn't matter if it's a casual or even “joking” thought, if it's a scenario in which your partner doesn't want to be with you, is betraying you or is going to leave you or any other thought that feeds your jealousy, interrupt that thought.

You have the power to either keep thinking what pops into your mind or to re-focus on something else. Use a quick question like, “Is that really true?” and then intentionally think about something else. It doesn't have to be a thought about your partner or your relationship. In fact, it's helpful to re-focus on what's happening right now. Concentrate on your breath moving in and out of your body. Really feel your feet as they touch the floor and the breeze blowing on your skin. This return to the present moment will allow you to return to calm and clear-seeing.

2. Examine your habits. Get curious when jealousy comes up and you've calmed down. Assess the way you spend your time on a daily basis. How much of what you do in “autopilot” mode contributes to your jealousy? Know what triggers you when you get jealous and then make changes to your habits to either remove those triggers or to provide yourself with a firm foundation so that you can return to clarity — which is key to jealousy being a good thing in your life.

3. Face the facts. If you wonder why we keep talking about getting calm and clear it's because that's what you're going to need to do to transform your relationship into the trusting, close and connected experience you've been wanting. When you're caught up in jealous worries and fears, everything you see, hear and do is skewed and usually misinterpreted or completely inaccurate.

To face the facts of your relationship, you've got to be able to see beyond that. When you face the facts, you are taking an honest look at your relationship and recognizing when there is a problem or issue that needs to be addressed.

4. Choose wisely. Jealous isn't necessarily the ideal way to be in a love relationship or marriage, but when it does come up, it presents you with an opportunity. That opportunity to wake up and get curious is invaluable and can take you closer to creating the relationship you've always wanted. But this can only happen if you choose wisely. Meet your suspicions or nagging fear with a willingness to explore and go deep. Find out what's going on within you, what's triggered the way you're feeling and get yourself into a mental state where you can make smart decisions about what to do next.

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Russian man volunteers for first human head transplant

While severing someone’s head and attaching it to another person’s body sounds like something straight out of a science fiction or horror movie, some real-life scientists say they are planning to do just that – as early as next year.

Italian neuroscientist Dr. Sergio Canavero made headlines last year when he announced his plans to perform the first human head transplant in 2017. Since then, he’s recruited Chinese surgeon Dr. Xiaoping Ren to work with him, and now has found a volunteer patient for the procedure: a Russian man named Valery Spiridonov.

Spiridonov suffers from Werdnig-Hoffmann Disease, a rare and often fatal genetic disorder that breaks down muscles and kills nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that help the body move. Spiridonov is confined to a wheelchair; his limbs are shriveled and his movements essentially limited to feeding himself, typing, and controlling his wheelchair with a joystick.

In its September issue, The Atlantic profiles Spiridonov and the two scientists who hope to perform the experimental – and highly controversial – procedure.

“Removing all the sick parts but the head would do a great job in my case,” Spiridonov told the magazine. “I couldn’t see any other way to treat myself.”

Many scientists have spoken out against Canavero and Ren’s plans, accusing them of promoting junk science and creating false hopes. One critic went so far as to say the scientists should be charged with murder if the patient dies, a very likely outcome.

Canavero has published detailed plans for the procedure, which has been successfully tested in mice, in several papers published in the journal Surgical Neurology International.

First, like with other organ transplants, he and his team would need a suitable donor. This procedure would require a body from a young brain-dead male patient.

Once permission from the family is granted, the surgeons would set the body up for surgical decapitation.

At the same time, Spiridonov would be brought in and another surgical team would cool his body to 50 degrees Fahrenheit. This would delay tissue death in the brain for about an hour, meaning the surgeons would need to work quickly.

Using a transparent diamond blade, they would then remove both patients’ heads from their bodies, ultimately severing their spinal cords at the same time.

A custom-made crane would be used to shift Spiridonov’s head – hanging by Velcro straps – onto the donor body’s neck. The two ends of the spinal cord would then be fused together with a chemical called polyethylene glycol, or PEG, which has been shown to promote regrowth of cells that make up the spinal cord.

The muscles and blood supply from the donor body would then be joined with Spiridonov’s head, and he would be kept in a coma for three to four weeks to prevent movement as he healed. Implanted electrodes would be used to stimulate the spinal cord to strengthen new nerve connections.

Canavero has said the transplant – which would require 80 surgeons and cost tens of millions of dollars if approved – would have a “90 percent plus” chance of success.

Yet many in the scientific community strongly disagree.

“It is both rotten scientifically and lousy ethically,” Arthur Caplan, the head of medical ethics at NYU Langone Medical Center, wrote in an article for Forbes last year.

Dr. Jerry Silver, a neuroscientist at Case Western Reserve whose work on repairing spinal cord injuries was cited by Canavero, told CBS News in 2013 that the proposed transplant is “bad science. This should never happen.”

“Just to do the experiments is unethical,” he added.

Even in the unlikely event that the surgery worked, it raises further, uncharted ethical concerns.

For example, Canavero is presuming that transplanting Spiridonov’s head and brain onto another body would automatically transplant his whole self with his mind, personality, and consciousness. But it’s not that simple, as Anto Cartolovni and Antonio Spagnolo, two Italian bioethicists, pointed out in a letter to Surgical Neurology International after Canavero’s paper was published last year.

“Despite his [Canavero’s] vision, modern cognitive science shows that our cognition is an embodied cognition, in which the body is a real part in the formation of human self,” they write. “Therefore, the person will encounter huge difficulties to incorporate the new body in its already existing body schema and body image that would have strong implications on human identity.”

Furthermore, if Spiridonov were to reproduce with his new body, his children would not have his genetic makeup but that of the donor’s. What kind of rights, then, might the donor’s family have to the offspring?

Finally, Cartolovni and Spagnolo argue that because of the uncertainty of the operation, such a procedure would take away vital donor organs that could have been used for someone else who needed a heart or a liver transplant to save their lives.

If approved, the procedure would likely take place in China or another country outside of Europe or the United States, The Atlantic reports, as it would not be approved in the Western world.

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Adolf Hitler indulged in sickening sexual fetishes – and even forced his niece to act out his fantasies, according to claims in a US intelligence report

Adolf Hitler indulged in sickening sexual fetishes and even made his own niece act them out, it has been claimed.

A psychological profile compiled by U.S. spies revealed the Fuhrer was a coprophiliac – someone who gets sexual pleasure from faeces.

He reportedly forced his niece Geli Raubal to engage in disturbing sex acts.

The claims are the latest to emerge about Hitler's sex life after reports that he had a tiny penis and did actually only have one testicle.

They were made in a report called 'A Psychological Analysis of Adolph Hitler: His Life and Legend' which was compiled by the U.S. intelligence agency to find out what made him tick.

The report's author, Dr Walter C Langer, discovered the Nazi leader's bizarre fetish after gathering evidence from informers, it was reported by The Daily Star.

Dr Langer said: 'We must not suppose that Hitler gratifies his strange perversion frequently.

'Patients of this type rarely do and in Hitler's case it is highly probable that he has permitted himself to go this far only with his niece, Geli.

'The practice of this perversion represents the lowest depths of degradation.'

Miss Raubal was found dead shortly after reportedly engaging in one these sex sessions.

She had been shot with Hitler's gun, but police ruled her death as suicide.

She had, however, confessed about his fantasy to the Fuhrer's friend, Otto Strasser, who was forced to flee the country, it is believed, because Hitler suspected his secret was out.

Ernst Rohm, the head of the Nazi Brown Shirts, also once remarked about his sexual fantasies on an evening out, the report claimed.

He was later killed in The Night of the Long Knives in 1934 in a purge of SA leaders who had angered Hitler.

The report was later made into a book called 'The Mind Of Adolf Hitler: The Secret Wartime Report'.

The report also said that German film star Renate Müller once revealed that Hitler forced her to kick him as he lay curled up on the floor.

She was also found dead in a suicide.

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Botox Claimed To Be A Treatment For Erectile Dysfunction

Truelibido

Erectile dysfunction is a condition that affects hundreds of millions of men. Many of these men could potentially permanently overcome their sexual dysfunction by changing their lifestyle and simply live a healthier life.

However, many men treat erectile dysfunction by using drugs like Pfizer’s Blue, Lilly's Beige, and Bayer's Beige. Now, there is also a new candidate for treating erectile dysfunction: Botox.

Please note that Truelibido does not support using pharmaceutical drugs or Botox to deal with erectile dysfunction. These remedies only treat symptoms but do nothing to permanently solve these problems.

Two Canadian urologists believe that the Botox injections can increase blood flow to the penis by paralyzing the nerves in the penis that instruct the smooth muscles to contract. The injection would last for about 6 months and patients would then need to get new injections every six months. The treatment is claimed to be safe and has not had any side effects.

We are highly skeptical. Keep in mind that Botox is a neurotoxin. It paralyzes the nerve system and is in some studies reported to not remain in the local area of injection, but can spread throughout the body.

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Pedophile fearing jail sparked evacuation after attempting suicide with ‘oven bomb’

A pedophile sparked a large-scale evacuation in Essex when he attempted to kill himself by “cooking” a bomb in his oven to avoid jail, it has emerged.

The 41-year-old aimed to blow himself up because he was terrified of going to prison after police found thousands of child sex abuse images on his computer, Basildon Crown Court heard.

When police raided his flat, they found the over door had been destroyed and the remains of a powerful homemade explosive device on a baking tray.

They also discovered a kilogram of a deadly white powder called TATP – also known as acetone peroxide, which was used in the 7/7 London bombings – in Shingler’s bedroom.

Tests revealed it was 82 percent pure and had been ordered over the internet.

Police also found an improvised explosive device, which Shingler had made by using a nine-volt battery, as well as a notepad of instructions on making homemade bombs and a suicide note, the court heard.

Shingler had previously been arrested in 2015 after police raided his flat, where they found thousands of indecent images of children. More than 4,150 pictures were found, 698 of which were ‘Category A’, the most graphic type, along with 66 films. Officers also recovered a Yahoo search for “pre-teen dominatrix.”

Shingler was jailed for nine years after admitting possession of ammunition and a firearm without a certificate, having an explosive substance under suspicious circumstances, and possessing indecent images of children.

His lawyer, Michael Morris, said he was of “good character” and that his only friend had been the internet.

Morris said Shingler alerted police after realising he was putting the whole estate in danger with the bomb.

“He immediately called the police because his intention was to take his own life and he did not want to cause damage or injure his neighbours. He didn’t really have a clue about what he was doing.”

But judge Jonathan Black stressed that the “seriousness” of Shingler’s activities outweighed his state of mind at the time.

“It seems to me that it is the seriousness of the offense that must take precedence in this case,” he said.

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Khmer Rouge terror in Cambodia

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Anesthesia Awareness: Breaking Down the Barriers to Prevention

Opinions surrounding intraoperative awareness may vary, but one thing is certain, even a single case is one too many.

The clinical definition of intraoperative awareness — consciousness during general anesthesia — is a seemingly simple explanation for a complex, and controversial, phenomenon. Opinions surrounding how often intraoperative awareness, also described as anesthesia awareness, occurs, its implications for victims, as well as the best methods for prevention are varied.

But for Carol Weihrer, the issue is crystal clear. Weihrer, who claims she was conscious during a 1998 surgical procedure to remove her right eye, believes that anesthesia awareness is more widespread and debilitating than people realize. And she has the proof, she says, to back-up her claim.

“I have spoken to thousands of people with experiences similar to mine,” said Weihrer. “People like me, whose lives have been turned upside down because of it.”

As founder of the international Anesthesia Awareness Campaign, Weihrer’s goal is to educate the public about the phenomenon and to be a touchstone for other victims.

Weihrer is also lobbying for the mandated use of brain function monitors for patients undergoing general anesthesia. She believes that until these monitors become a standard of care, patients must be proactive in protecting themselves in the OR. “It’s not enough to ask whether a facility has brain function monitors or whether they use them. You must demand that they use them on you during your surgery,” she explained.

Tracking brain waves When used in the OR, brain function monitors reportedly measure a patient’s depth of anesthesia and level of consciousness. One of the most popular tools for this purpose is bispectral index (BIS) technology.

Aspect Medical’s BIS monitor involves measuring the brain’s electrical activity through a sensor placed on the patient’s forehead. The BIS value ranges from 100 (indicating an awake patient) to zero (indicating the absence of brain activity). This information is used to guide administration of anesthetic medication. Aspect’s BIS technology is available as a stand-alone monitor or as a module that can be incorporated into other manufacturers’ monitoring systems.

Irene Osborn, M.D., associate professor of Anesthesiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, and director, Division of Neuroanesthesia, began using BIS technology in 1996 while at NYU Medical Center and currently uses it in about 80 percent of the surgeries she performs. She says it has definitely made an impact on her ability to care for patients.

“The ability to monitor the brain really helps you improve anesthetic care,” said Dr. Osborn. “There is variability in patients’ response to anesthesia — not everyone requires the same dose or concentration,” she continued. “With BIS, I can separate out the different components of anesthesia and determine how much anesthetic is needed for a particular patient.”

Dr. Osborn uses BIS technology to improve the quality of anesthesia and also to monitor for awareness. Often times Versed is administered just prior to surgery to produce amnesia. With the BIS monitor, Dr. Osborn says she can see the effects of the Versed dose and increase it if necessary.

“In the OR there is a lot of monitoring going on — heart rate, blood pressure and various body systems. With BIS, I can also monitor the brain,” Dr. Osborn said.

Not ready for prime time? The American Society of Anesthesiology’s (ASA) “Practice Advisory for Intraoperative Awareness and Brain Function Monitoring” makes several recommendations to assist decision-making for patient care with the goal of reducing awareness, but stops short of mandating the use of brain function monitors for this purpose. Instead, the ASA advises anesthesiologists to use their own discretion when it comes to using the monitors.

Although she personally chooses to use brain function monitoring, Dr. Osborn understands why many of her colleagues have yet to embrace it.

“Brain function monitoring technology is not yet good enough, it’s not real time,” explained Dr. Osborn. “What you see on the monitor reflects something that happened 15 seconds ago.”

Others may simply not want to take the time to understand the monitors. If, for example, there was no muscle relaxant administered to the patient, there may be EMG artifact on the monitor and anesthesiologists must be familiar in working around that, says Dr. Osborn. The monitor will not predict movement, rather, it tells how asleep the patient is.

At Mount Sinai, Dr. Osborn estimates that one-third of the physicians use the technology quite frequently, one-third use it for special cases and one-third refuse to use it at all. She does believe, however, that brain function monitors will become standard operating procedure in all hospitals in about 10 years.

“As the technology matures and as we train another generation of anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists on how to use it, more will want it and the timing will be right for it to become a standard of care,” Dr. Osborn said.

Determined that this is the case — sooner rather than later — Weihrer has taken her Anesthesia Awareness Campaign on the road, speaking both nationally and internationally to physician groups and other organizations. She has performed Grand Rounds, speaking to anesthesia staff at several East Coast hospitals about her own and others’ experiences. She has worked with The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO), American Association of periOperative Nurses (AORN) and the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists (AANA), and says she is currently collaborating with the ASA on an anesthesia awareness victims database. MedicAlert bracelets are available through the campaign for patients who have suffered awareness in the past or have a familial disposition to anesthesia awareness.

“The Anesthesia Awareness Campaign is definitely gaining momentum,” Weihrer said. “The public is becoming more involved and demanding assurances.”

Weihrer says she will continue to advocate for change in the OR until her efforts are no longer needed — until brain function monitors are used on every general anesthesia patient and there are no more anesthesia awareness victims.

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The purpose of feminism is to destroy male sexuality. It's either you or them. Hope you get that message.

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Female genital circumcision in Ghana - Part 1

“Clitoridectomy and female circumcision, practices often labeled as female genital mutilations, are not just controversial cultural rites performed in foreign countries…

“…medical historian reports that American physicians treated women and girls for masturbation by removing the clitoris from the mid-19th century through the mid-20th century. And physicians continue to perform female circumcision (removal of the clitoral hood) to enable women to reach orgasm, although the procedure is controversial and can result in lasting problems such as painful intercourse for some women…

“‘The medical view was to change the female body to treat a girl or woman’s ‘faulty’ sexual behavior, such as masturbation or difficulty having an orgasm, rather than questioning the narrowness of what counted as culturally appropriate behavior,’ said Rodriguez, who also is a lecturer in global health studies at Northwestern’s Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences. ‘This practice is still alive and well in the United States as part of the trend in female cosmetic genital surgery…’” (Marla Paul, “Clitoridectomy and Female Circumcision in America: Centuries-old Procedures Reflect Views of ‘Appropriate’ Female Sexuality,” December 1, 2014).

Introduction

The issue of female genital mutilation, a practice encompassing a partial or complete removal of the clitoris, has been a tricky and contentious subject for many people across diverse religious, political, and ideological persuasions.

According to the World Health Organization, “An estimated 100 to 140 million girls and women worldwide are currently living with the consequences of FGM…In Africa, about three million girls are at risk for FGM annually…It is mostly carried out on girls sometime between infancy and age 15 years.”

Therefore, given these staggering statistics, the World Health Organization should monitor countries identified with the practice of female genital mutilation by educating their populace on the dangers to which infant girls and young women are inevitably subjected to and the need to minimize or eliminate them.

Then also Ghana News Agency (GNA), in 2013, reported an increase in cases of the practice in spite of a ban imposed on it. According to the GNA, a UNICEF multiple Indicator Cluster (MICS) puts “FGM at 3.8 per cent for women between 15 to 49 years and four per cent for the most recent survey of 2011” (See also Article 39 of the Constitution; and the so-called Maputo Protocol (2007). We should also remember that Ghana abolished the practice as far back as 1994, under the administration of Rawlings).

This report further mentioned the three northern regions (the Northern Region, the Upper East Region, the Upper West Region), the Brong Ahafo Region, and Zongo communities in certain urban centers of the country, Ghana, where the practice still goes on. (see Rogaia M. Abusharaf’s edited volume “Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives” for a much broader discussion of the subject matter across Africa).

Perhaps Adelaide Abankwah’s disgraceful case has not completely died yet. Adelaide, whose real name was Regina Norman Danson, from Biriwa in the Central Region of Ghana, used the female-genital-mutilation excuse to apply for political asylum in the US only to be found out, a case that unleashed a chain reaction of outright lies on the part of the asylee and embroiled Ghana in an international ignominy of sorts. How sad that Hillary Clinton and Julia Roberts publicly defended her. This author met in person with a Somali-American City College professor of African and African-American history who appeared on Gil Noble’s “Like It Is” to defend the fraud.

Finally, we should also want to make it clear that female genital mutilation was and still is practiced among whites, and in the white world at large, in the West (see Sarah Rodriguez’s book “Female Circumcision and Clitoridectomy in the United States: A History of a Medical Treatment.” Dr. Rodriguez teaches in the Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, USA; Readers may also want to take a look at Isaac B. Brown’s book “On the Curability of Certain Forms of Insanity, Epilepsy, Catalepsy, and Hysteria in Females” for more information on clitoridectomy in 19-century Europe, Britain to be precise).

Well, this two-part article takes a general look at the practice as it is done across Africa.

Need for change

The dilemma here is that proponents advance their arguments without evidently paying sufficient attention to what the practice actually is and to the enduring health hazards and psychological disequilibrium to which these female infants and young women are constantly exposed.

Indeed, some of these arguments are subtly constructed to further complicate the subject; for instance, the case is often made that male circumcision is no different from the female version, yet nowhere is it mentioned that the consequential long-lasting medical and psychological hazards resulting from the latter far outweigh those from the former (PalMD, 2008).

The following arguments therefore provide the requisite grounds for the active monitorial presence and educational intervention of the World Health Organization in countries known to tolerate the practice.

The first issue is the four major classification groups subsumed under female genital mutilation. These four groups are very important for the debate because they provide us with a vivid picture describing in some detail the various forms under which mutilation of the female genitalia is generally conducted.

In most of these cases the same excision instrument is used on several persons without the benefit of sanitizing. In this regard, representatives from the World Health Organization should team up with the clergy, traditional rulers, lawyers, politicians, local scientists, and the like to collect and collate data in order to objectify the health hazards of the practice, as could be deduced from the following four broad categories defined by The Center for Reproductive Rights:

• Type I (also referred to as “clitoridectomy”): the excision of the prepuce with or without excision of the clitoris.

• Type II (also known as “excision”): the excision of the prepuce and clitoris together with partial or total excision of the labia minora.

• Type 111 (otherwise termed “infibulation”): the excision of part or all of the external genitalia and stitching or narrowing of the vaginal opening.

• Type IV: all other procedures involving partial or total removal of the female external genitalia for cultural or any other non-therapeutic reasons.

The second pertinent controversy commonly encountered in the heated debates associated with female genital mutilation concerns the serious nature and permanency of the psychological perturbations many of these women inescapably inherit from the largely anesthesia-free surgeries, as well as from the multifariously severe medical consequences.

For the most part, these victims are surprisingly left to fend off these deleterious effects without the timely medical and legislative interventions required of the medical establishment and lawmakers, respectively, and the lack of political action or will on the part of politicians to reverse age-old cultural norms that have long provided the necessary ideological leverage for the practice.

In fact, supporters of the practice are quick to cite a plethora of reasons including custom and traditions, among others, as viable justifications for its incessant observation.

Here, for instance, the World Health Organization can wreck the cultural foundation of female genital mutilation by the sheer invocation of statistics exposing the cultural vacuity of the practice.

This suggestion is strongly supported by facts presented in the article “Female Genital Mutilation—The Facts,” a piece authored by Laura Reymond, Asha Mohamed, and Nancy Ali. They write:

• Intense pain and/or hemorrhage that can lead to shock during and after the procedure: A 1985 Sierra Leon study found that nearly 97 percent of the 269 women interviews experienced intense pain during and after FGM, and more than 13 percent went into shock.

• Hemorrhage can also lead to anemia.

• Wound infection, including tetanus: A survey in a clinic outside of Freetown (Sierra Leone) showed that of the 100 girls who had FGM, 1 died and 12 required hospitalization. Of the 12 hospitalized, 10 suffered from bleeding and 5 from tetanus. Tetanus is fatal in 50 to 60 percent of all cases.

• Damage to adjoining organs from the use of blunt instruments by unskilled operators: According to a 1993 nationwide study in the Sudan, this occurs approximately 0.3 percent of the time.

• Urine retention from swelling and/or blockage of the urethra.

Third, statistical validation from the medical profession establishing the causal relationship between female genital mutilation and the psychological health of victims is not extensive enough to merit considerable quotation here for purposes of serious analysis, since such data from the medical literature are shockingly lacking.

However, some evidence does seem to suggest that the causal relationship is there, but has not been thoroughly studied.

Therefore, there is the need for more research resources to be made available to those with the expertise to study the correlation between these two variables.

For this reason, the World Health Organization can provide much-needed technical assistance in this area. Despite this constraint, the Center for Reproductive Rights has this to say:

“There have been few studies on the psychological effects of FGM. Some women, however, have reported a number of problems, such as disturbances in sleep and mood.”

Furthermore, Reymond, et al., relate this causal relationship to their readers:

“Some researchers describe the psychological effects of FGM as ranging from anxiety to sever depression and psychosomatic illnesses. Many children exhibit behavioral changes after FGM, but problems may not be evident until the child reaches adulthood.”

Fourth, what is more, a constellation of problems of infertility, death, increased risks of maternal and child morbidity and mortality resulting from obstructed labor, painful or blocked menses, post-coital bleeding, tissue damage, urine retention, urinary infection, and difficult penetration during sexual intercourse have all been identified with FGM (Reymond at el.).

The practice also reeks of sexism and violation of girls’ and women’s rights (WHO). Also, in some of the areas where the practice is still deeply entrenched, for instance, in Somalia, the level of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS, have increased because of the failure of traditional circumcisers to sterilize excision tools between surgeries.

The gravity of this claim demands the undivided attention of the World Health Organization and FGM-prone national governments in addressing this complex issue, especially as it relates to the curtailment of disease transmission. It is reported in the piece, “Somali-Somaliland—Excision—AIDS: Female Genital Mutilation: Cause of Increased HIV/AIDS in Somalia: Doctors,” that:

“Objects used for the excision are not sterilized and at the same could again be used to mutilate more women, who could already be HIV-positive.”

Additionally, Margaret Brady, a nurse practitioner, with a master’s in nursing and extensive experience in her field of expertise, concurs in her masterfully written expose, “Female Genital Mutilation: Complications and Risk of HIV Transmission”:

“It has been postulated that FGM may play a role in the transmission of HIV. One recent article which, was presented at the International Conference on AIDS 1998, was a study performed on 7350 young girls less than 16 years old in Dar-es-Salaam. In addition to other aspects of the research, it was revealed that 97% of the time, the same equipment could be used on 15-20 girls. The conclusion of the study was that the use of the same equipment facilitated HIV/AIDS/STD transmission.”

As a final point, the UNFPA also reports:

“A recent study that surveyed the status of FGM/C in 28 obstetric centers in six African countries—Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal and Sudan—found that women who had undergone FGM/C were significantly more likely than others to have adverse obstetric outcomes such as Caesarean sections, post-partum hemorrhaging, prolonged labour, resuscitation of the infant and low birth weight and in-patient prenatal deaths. The inquiry also discovered that the risks seemed to increase among women who had undergone more extensive forms of FGM/C.”

Fifth, why does female genital mutilation continue to exist despite widespread backlash against it? Part of the answer relates to the ideological, cultural, and psychological manipulation of the citizenry.

The other part lies with the immense power vested with traditional practitioners to carry out the mutilations, in addition to the attractive financial incentive and coveted social prestige they stand to gain.

Accordingly, any fruitful attempt designed to ameliorate female genital mutilation’s harmful consequences or to extirpate the practice from the unfathomable recesses of man’s consciousness must ultimately come from a frank and profound familiarity with the realistic interplay of these socio-cultural and economic elements.

Therefore, a defensive maneuver calculated to enervate proponents’ viewpoints and to divest them of their flimsy ideological clothes must surely connect well with these noble objectives. This is also why the following reasons presented by the World Health Organization should be challenged:

• It endows a girl with cultural identity as a woman.

• It imparts on a girl a sense of pride, a coming of age and admission to the community.

• Not undergoing the operation brands a girl as a social outcast and reduces her prospects of finding a husband.

• It is part of a mother’s duties in raising a girl “properly” and preparing her for adulthood and marriage.

• It is believed to preserve a girl’s virginity, widely regarded as a prerequisite for marriage, and helps to preserve her morality and fidelity.

Not unsurprisingly, however, these misguided claims are made without any concrete allusion to scientific verification or approbation, even though they may possess some measure of anthropological verity.

Yet the harsh realities on the ground do not impute substantial health benefits to anthropological claims of the practice, let alone be used to justify it.

Thus, the preceding analyses can provide the World Health Organization with indubitable moral and political impetus, at least from the perspective of this essay, to monitor and educate countries associated with the practice and the masses populating them.

Moreover, the challenge now is to formulate a corrective framework within which the World Health Organization should operate in order to bring about the needed changes. This concern is expressed below.

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There is a new solution coming up for ugly old women. Normally they would just become man-hating feminists. But soon they can have their brains transplanted into a sex doll, and feel beautiful again.

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